They are divided into two major categories depending on how their action is implemented: movable and immovable mechanisms.
Mobile orthodontic appliances:
• Acrylic tiles.
They are used for small dental movements or to hold the therapeutic effect.
• Operating machines.
These are orthodontic mechanisms that guide the development of the jaws when the patient is young.
• Transparent splints (Invisalign).
Fixed orthodontic appliances:
• Rings and braces
Rings are orthodontic accessories applied to the back teeth (usually the molars). The orthodontic mechanisms are supported on the rings and their accessories, such as the orthodontic wire when we wear the braces, the oral arch, the palate and tongue arches, etc.
– The hooks (the braces we know) are the means of applying orthodontic forces on the teeth. The orthodontic forces that move the teeth are exerted by orthodontic wires, rubber bands, springs and elastic chains and are applied to the teeth through the hooks. We can choose the type of orthodontic appliances that will be used to be more or less visible:
– Mini metal braces: they look less than traditional braces.
Transparent ceramic or crystal braces: make orthodontic treatment almost invisible.
– Tongue braces: they are inserted from the inside of the teeth and the orthodontic treatment is virtually invisible.
• Orthodontic implants
Tiny orthodontic implants are used during orthodontic treatment to achieve difficult and large movements of the teeth, effectively, thus shortening the duration of treatment. These implants are used in specialized cases, mainly in adults.